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Paresthesia

What Is Paresthesia?

If you’ve ever felt as though your skin was crawling, or had numbness or itching for no apparent reason, you may have experienced paresthesia.
Almost everyone has experienced paresthesia on occasion. One of the most common times people get that familiar feeling of pins and needles is when their arms or legs “fall asleep.” This sensation usually occurs because you’ve inadvertently put pressure on a nerve. It resolves once you change your position to remove the pressure from the affected nerve. This type of paresthesia is temporary and usually resolves without treatment. If the paresthesia persists, you may have an underlying medical disorder that requires treatment.
What are the symptoms of paresthesia?
Paresthesia can affect any part of the body, but it commonly affects the:
hands
arms
legs
feet
It can be temporary or chronic. The symptoms can include feelings of:
numbness
weakness
tingling
burning
cold
Chronic paresthesia may cause a stabbing pain. That may lead to clumsiness of the affected limb. When paresthesia occurs in your legs and feet, it can make it difficult to walk.
See your doctor if you have symptoms of paresthesia that persist or affect with your quality of life. It could be a sign that you have an underlying medical condition that needs treatment.

What causes paresthesia?
It’s not always possible to determine the cause of paresthesia. Temporary paresthesia is often due to pressure on a nerve or brief periods of poor circulation. This can happen when you fall asleep on your hand or sit with your legs crossed for too long. Chronic paresthesia may be a sign of nerve damage. Two types of nerve damage are radiculopathy and neuropathy.
Radiculopathy
Radiculopathy is a condition in which nerve roots become compressed, irritated, or inflamed. This can occur when you have:
a herniated disk that presses on a nerve
a narrowing of the canal that transmits the nerve from your spinal cord to your extremity
any mass that compresses the nerve as it exits the spinal column
Radiculopathy that affects your lower back is called lumbar radiculopathy. Lumbar radiculopathy can cause paresthesia in your leg or foot. In more severe cases, compression of the sciatic nerve can occur and may lead to weakness in your legs. The sciatic nerve is a large nerve that starts in your lower spinal cord.
Cervical radiculopathy involves the nerves that provide sensation and strength to your arms. If you have cervical radiculopathy, you may experience:
chronic neck pain
paresthesia of the upper extremities
arm weakness
hand weakness
Neuropathy
Neuropathy occurs due to chronic nerve damage. The most common cause of neuropathy is hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar.
Other possible causes of neuropathy include:
trauma
repetitive movement injuries
autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis
neurological diseases, such as MS
kidney diseases
liver diseases
stroke
tumors in the brain or near nerves
bone marrow or connective tissue disorders
hypothyroidism
deficiencies in vitamin B-1, B-6, B-12, E, or niacin
getting too much vitamin D
infections, such as Lyme disease, shingles, or HIV
certain medications, such as chemotherapy drugs
exposure to toxic substances, such as chemicals or heavy metals
Nerve damage can eventually lead to permanent numbness or paralysis.

Who is at risk for paresthesia?
Anyone can experience temporary paresthesia. Your risk of radiculopathy increases with age. You also may be more prone to it if you:
perform repetitive movements that repeatedly compress your nerves, such as typing, playing an instrument, or playing a sport such as tennis
drink heavily and eat a poor diet that leads to vitamin deficiencies, specifically vitamin B-12 and folate
have type 1 or 2 diabetes
have an autoimmune condition
have a neurological condition, such as MS

How is paresthesia diagnosed?
See your doctor if you have persistent paresthesia with no obvious cause.
Be prepared to give your medical history. Mention any activities you participate in that involve repetitive movement. You should also list any over-the-counter or prescription medications that you take.
Your doctor will consider your known health conditions to help them make a diagnosis. If you have diabetes, for example, your doctor will want to determine if you have nerve damage, or neuropathy.
Your doctor will probably perform a full physical exam. This will likely include a neurological exam as well. Blood work and other laboratory tests, such as a spinal tap, may help them rule out certain diseases.
If your doctor suspects there’s a problem with your neck or spine, they may recommend imaging tests, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans.
Depending on the results, they may refer you to a specialist, such as a neurologist, orthopedist, or endocrinologist.

What is the treatment for paresthesia?
Treatment depends on the cause of your paresthesia. It may be possible to treat your condition by eliminating the cause in some cases. For example, if you have a repetitive movement injury, a few lifestyle adjustments or physical therapy may solve the problem.
If your paresthesia is due to an underlying disease, getting treatment for that disease can potentially ease the symptoms of paresthesia.
Your individual circumstances will determine whether your symptoms will improve. Some types of nerve damage are irreversible.

What is the outlook for people with paresthesia?
Temporary paresthesia usually resolves within a few minutes.
You may have a case of chronic paresthesia if those strange sensations don’t go away or they come back far too often. It can complicate your daily life if the symptoms are severe. That’s why it’s so important to try to find the cause. Don’t hesitate to seek a second opinion or see a specialist if necessary.
The severity of chronic paresthesia and how long it will last largely depends on the cause. In some cases, treating the underlying condition solves the problem.
Be sure to tell your doctor if your treatment isn’t working so they can adjust your treatment plan.
How can you prevent paresthesia?
Paresthesia isn’t always preventable. For instance, you probably can’t help it if you tend to fall asleep on your arms. You can take steps to reduce the occurrence or severity of paresthesia, though. For example, using wrist splints at night may alleviate the compression of the nerves of your hand and help resolve the symptoms of paresthesia you experience at night.
Follow these tips for preventing chronic paresthesia:
Avoid repetitive movement if possible.
Rest often if you need to perform repetitive movements.
Get up and move around as often as possible if you have to sit for long periods.
If you have diabetes or any other chronic disease, careful monitoring and disease management will help lower your chances of having paresthesia.

Article Provided By: healthline
Carolina Pain Scrambler Logo, Chronic Pain, Greenville, SCIf you would like to discuss what Carolina Pain Scrambler do to help relieve your chronic pain symptoms or receive more information on our treatment process, please do not hesitate to call us at 864-520-5011 or you can email us at info@carolinapainscrambler.com

 

 

 

 

 

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Neuropathic Pain

Neuropathic Pain

What is neuropathic pain?
Neuropathic pain can result after damage or dysfunction of the nervous system. Pain can rise from any level of the nervous system. These levels are the peripheral nerves, spinal cord, and brain. Pain centers receive the wrong signals from the damaged nerve fibers. Nerve function may change at the site of the nerve damage, as well as areas in the central nervous system (central sensitization).
Neuropathy is a disturbance of function or a change in one or several nerves. About 30% of neuropathy cases is caused by diabetes. It is not always easy to tell the source of the neuropathic pain. There are hundreds of diseases that are linked to this kind of pain.
What are some of the sources of neuropathic pain?
Alcoholism
Amputation (results in phantom pain)
Chemotherapy drugs (Cisplatin®, Paclitaxel®, Vincristine®, etc.)
Radiation therapy
Complex regional pain syndrome
Diabetes
Facial nerve problems
HIV infection or AIDS
Shingles
Spinal nerve compression or inflammation
Trauma or surgeries with resulting nerve damage
Nerve compression or infiltration by tumors
Central nervous system disorders (stroke, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, etc.)
What are the symptoms of neuropathic pain?
Many symptoms may be present in the case of neuropathic pain. These symptoms include:
Spontaneous pain (pain that comes without stimulation): Shooting, burning, stabbing, or electric shock-like pain; tingling, numbness, or a “pins and needles” feeling
Evoked pain: Pain brought on by normally non-painful stimuli such as cold, gentle brushing against the skin, pressure, etc. This is called allodynia. Evoked pain also may mean the increase of pain by normally painful stimuli such as pinpricks and heat. This type of pain is called hyperalgesia.
An unpleasant, abnormal sensation whether spontaneous or evoked (dysesthesia)
Trouble sleeping
Emotional problems due to disturbed sleep and pain
Pain that may be lessened in response to a normally painful stimulus (hypoalgesia)
Diagnosis and Tests
How is neuropathic pain diagnosed?
Your doctor will take a medical history and do a physical exam. Neuropathic pain is suggested by its typical symptoms when nerve injury is known or suspected. Your doctor will then try to find the underlying cause of the neuropathy and then trace the symptoms.
Management and Treatment
How is neuropathic pain treated?
The goals of treatment are to:
Treat the underlying disease (for example, radiation or surgery to shrink a tumor that is pressing on a nerve)
Provide pain relief
Maintain functionality
Improve quality of life
Multimodal therapy (including medicines, physical therapy, psychological treatment, and sometimes surgery) is usually required to treat neuropathic pain.
Medicines commonly prescribed for neuropathic pain include anti-seizure drugs such as Neurontin®, Lyrica®, Topamax®, Tegretol®, and Lamictal®. Doctors also prescribe antidepressants such as Elavil®, Pamelor®, Effexor®, and Cymbalta®. A doctor’s prescription for anti-seizure drugs or antidepressants does not mean you have seizures or are depressed.
A topical patch (Lidocaine® or Capsaicin®) or a cream or ointment can be used on the painful area. Opioid analgesics can provide some relief. However, they generally are less effective in treating neuropathic pain. Negative effects may prevent their long-term use.
The pain can also be treated with nerve blocks given by pain specialists, including injections of steroids, local anesthetics, or other medicines into the affected nerves.
Neuropathic pain that has not responded to the therapies mentioned above can be treated with spinal cord stimulation, peripheral nerve stimulation, and brain stimulation.
Outlook / Prognosis
What is the outlook for people with neuropathic pain?
Neuropathic pain is difficult to get rid of, but is not life-threatening. Without rehabilitation and sometimes psychosocial support, treatment has a limited chance of success. With help from a pain specialist using the multimodal approaches listed above, your neuropathic pain can be managed to a level that improves your quality of life.
© Copyright 1995-2020 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation. All rights reserved.

Article Provided By: clevelandclinic
Carolina Pain Scrambler Logo, Chronic Pain, Greenville, SCIf you would like to discuss what Carolina Pain Scrambler do to help relieve your chronic pain symptoms or receive more information on our treatment process, please do not hesitate to call us at 864-520-5011 or you can email us at info@carolinapainscrambler.com

 

 

 

 

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Exercises For A Pinched Nerve In Your Hip

Exercises for a pinched nerve in your hip

A pinched nerve in the hip can be very painful. Certain home remedies and exercises can help relieve the pain.
In this article, we look at how to identify a pinched nerve, what home remedies can help, and exercises for this condition.
What is a pinched nerve?

A pinched nerve in the hip may cause sharp pain in the thigh, hip, or groin.
Nerves transmit pain signals. This means that when something goes wrong with a nerve, the symptoms can be very uncomfortable.
A common problem is when a nerve becomes pressed or pinched by nearby tendons, ligaments, or bone.

When a pinched nerve occurs, the nerve signals become aggravated, emphasized, or interrupted by pressure, irritation, or rubbing. This is known medically as radiculopathy.
In the hip, a pinched nerve can cause a:
sharp, searing, or burning pain in the hip, thigh, or groin
dull, achy pain in the hips and buttocks
tingling, “pins and needles” feeling, or numbness in the hip or down the leg
weakness or loss of movement in the affected hip and leg
Usually, the pain or numbness will worsen when a person moves. The nerve gets further irritated and aggravated by the structure that is pinching it.
Causes
A pinched nerve can be caused by a minor incident, such as sleeping in an improper position, or a major event, such as an accident.
Some of the more common causes of a pinched nerve in the hip include:
repetitive stress on the hips, back, and nearby joints, such as walking, standing, or sitting in a particular position for long periods
falls, car accidents, or sports injuries, which can throw the muscles and joints out of alignment
sleeping in a position that puts stress on the hips and back
hip flexors that are too tight, which may be caused by exercising without stretching before and after the activity

 

Home remedies
Minor pinched nerves can usually be treated at home.
Useful home remedies for a pinched nerve in the hip include:
Rest. Avoiding any activities that make the pain worse can reduce irritation and stress on the nerve, allowing it to heal.
Anti-inflammatories. These can reduce swelling, which may take pressure off of the nerve. Common brands include ibuprofen and naproxen.
Heat pads and cold pads. Alternate between the two, or use the one that brings the most relief. Both heat pads and cool packs are available for purchase online.
Gentle stretches. This can relieve pressure on muscles or tendons that may be too tight.

Stretches
Certain stretches can be very beneficial for a person with a pinched nerve in their hip. Stretching the following muscle areas may be helpful:

The piriformis stretch may help with a pinched nerve in the hip.
The piriformis is a muscle in the buttock area. When it is too tight, it can aggravate a pinched nerve and worsen hip pain.
This muscle gets tight when a person spends too long sitting down. It can also become overly tense if a person fails to stretch before and after strenuous exercise, such as running.
A person can use these three exercises to stretch the piriformis:
Piriformis stretch
Lie down on a flat surface.
Clasp the knee of the affected leg with both hands.
Slowly pull the knee upwards towards the head.
A person can deepen the stretch by holding the ankle and pulling the foot gently towards the opposite hip.
Hold for 10 seconds.
Repeat 3 times with both legs.
The bridge
Lie down on a flat surface, such as a carpeted floor.
Place feet flat on the ground, shoulder-width apart. Bend the knees about 45 degrees.
Put arms straight out to the side, flat on the floor.
Draw in the tummy and squeeze the buttocks.
Slowly push up through the heels and lift the buttocks and lower back off the floor, leaving the head and shoulders on the floor. Over time, the back will be completely off the floor, and the knees, hips, and shoulders will form a straight line.
Hold this pose for 10–30 seconds and slowly lower the back and buttocks down.
Rest for 15 seconds and repeat.
Floor slides
Lie on the floor, face up.
Bend the knees, placing the feet flat on the floor.
Gently draw the belly button in toward the spine, tightening the abdominal muscles. Breathe slowly and gently while holding the belly in.
Without moving the belly or spine, slowly extend one leg out straight until it is flat on the floor.
Hold the leg straight for up to 15 seconds and slowly slide it back up to a bent position.
Repeat with the other leg.
Glutes stretch
The glutes or gluteal muscles are muscles in the buttock area. They are closely connected to many causes of hip pain. Any tension in these muscles can also aggravate lower back pain.
Use the following exercises to stretch the glutes:
Sit and twist
Sit on the floor with legs straight out in front.
Bend the right knee and cross the right foot over the left knee.
Move the right heel up close to the left buttock, keeping the right foot flat on the floor. Reach the right arm behind the back and allow the fingers to touch the floor behind the back.
Put the left hand on top of the right knee. Slowly and gently pull the right knee towards the left until feeling a stretch in the buttock and hip area.
Hold for 15 to 30 seconds. Slowly release and repeat on the other side.
Lying down crossover
Lie flat on the floor, face up, with legs out straight.
Lift the left leg and hip, crossing it over the right. Keep shoulders and back flat on the floor.
Keep stretching until a stretch is felt in the glute and hips.
Hold for up to 30 seconds and slowly release. Repeat on the other side.
Full body stretches
Because all of the body’s muscles work together, having good flexibility in all muscle groups can help avoid a pinched nerve and muscle-related pain.
Try these relaxing and invigorating moves to stretch the various muscles in the body:
Classic bend and stretch
Stand up straight with feet hip-width apart. Knees should be slightly bent, not locked.
Breathe out and slowly bend forward at the hips. Gently lower the head toward the floor and focus on keeping the upper body relaxed.
Grab the back of the lower legs with hands.
Hold for 30 seconds while breathing deeply, and slowly rise to standing again.
Repeat.
The Sphinx

The Sphinx yoga pose can help to stretch the lower back.
This yoga pose helps stretch the lower back and strengthens the abdominals, both of which are related to the hips.
Lie face down on the floor with legs straight. Tuck elbows in under the shoulders and put forearms flat on the floor.
Lift the chest off the floor and press hips and thighs downward into the floor. Keep lifting the chest until a stretch is felt in the lower back. Focus on relaxing the shoulders and stretching the spine.
Go only far enough to feel a stretch, and stop if it is painful.
As with any stretches, some are better for certain body types and fitness levels. The best way to adopt a full stretching program is with the help of a certified personal trainer, sports medicine physician, or physical therapist.

When to see a doctor
Anyone who experiences a hip pain that lasts more than a few days and does not get better with rest and over-the-counter pain medicines should consult a doctor.
Severely pinched nerves can lead to scarring in the affected area or permanent nerve damage if not treated. Also, other medical causes for the pain should be ruled out.
In more severe cases, a doctor may recommend specific treatments for a pinched nerve. They include:
physical therapy
steroid injections given directly at the site of the pinched nerve
oral steroid medicines

Outlook
A pinched nerve in the hip is rarely serious, but the painful symptoms can interfere with daily life.
Home remedies and exercises can usually solve the issue, but it is best to see a doctor if symptoms persist beyond a few days.

Article Provided By: Medicalnewstoday

Carolina Pain Scrambler Logo, Chronic Pain, Greenville, SCIf you would like to discuss what Carolina Pain Scrambler do to help relieve your chronic pain symptoms or receive more information on our treatment process, please do not hesitate to call us at 864-520-5011 or you can email us at info@carolinapainscrambler.com

 

 

 

 

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Exercises for Peripheral Neuropathy

Exercises for Peripheral Neuropathy

Alternative treatments for peripheral neuropathy
About 20 million people across the country live with a form of peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is nerve damage disorder that typically causes pain in your hands and feet. Other common symptoms of this disorder include:
muscle weakness
numbness
tingling
poor balance
inability to feel pain or temperature
Treatment options typically focus on pain relief and treating the underlying cause. However, studies show that exercise can effectively preserve nerve function and promote nerve regeneration.
Exercise techniques for peripheral neuropathy
There are three main types of exercises ideal for people with peripheral neuropathy: aerobic, balance, and stretching.
Before you start exercises, warm up your muscles with dynamic stretching like arm circles. This promotes flexibility and increases blood flow. It will boost your energy, too, and activate your nerve signals.
Aerobic exercises
Aerobic exercises move large muscles and cause you to breathe deeply. This increases blood flow and releases endorphins that act as the body’s natural painkillers.
Best practices for aerobic exercising include routine activity for about 30 minutes a day, at least three days a week. If you’re just starting out, try exercising for 10 minutes a day to start.
Some examples of aerobic exercises are:
brisk walking
swimming
bicycling
Balance training
Peripheral neuropathy can leave your muscles and joints feeling stiff and sometimes weak. Balance training can build your strength and reduce feelings of tightness. Improved balance also prevents falls.
Beginning balance training exercises include leg and calf raises.
Side leg raise
Using a chair or counter, steady your balance with one hand.
Stand straight with feet slightly apart.
Slowly lift one leg to the side and hold for 5–10 seconds.
Lower your leg at the same pace.
Repeat with the other leg.
As you improve balance, try this exercise without holding onto the counter.
Calf raise
Using a chair or counter, steady your balance.
Lift the heels of both feet off the ground so you’re standing on your toes.
Slowly lower yourself down.
Repeat for 10–15 reps.
Stretching exercises
Stretching increases your flexibility and warms up your body for other physical activity. Routine stretching can also reduce your risk of developing an injury while exercising. Common techniques are calf stretches and seated hamstring stretches.
Calf stretch
Place one leg behind you with your toe pointing forward.
Take a step forward with the opposite foot and slightly bend the knee.
Lean forward with the front leg while keeping the heel on your back leg planted on the floor.
Hold this stretch for 15 seconds.
Repeat three times per leg.
Seated hamstring stretch
Sit on the edge of a chair.
Extend one leg in front of you with your toe pointed upward.
Bend the opposite knee with your foot flat on the floor.
Position your chest over your straight leg, and straighten your back until you feel a muscle stretch.
Hold this position for 15 – 20 seconds.
Repeat three times per leg.

Outlook
Exercise can reduce pain symptoms from peripheral neuropathy. Be sure to stretch after any workout to increase your flexibility and reduce pain from muscle tightness.
Mild pain is normal after stretching and regular activity. However, if your pain worsens or if you develop joint swelling, visit your doctor.

Article Provided By: healthline
Carolina Pain Scrambler Logo, Chronic Pain, Greenville, SCIf you would like to discuss what Carolina Pain Scrambler do to help relieve your chronic pain symptoms or receive more information on our treatment process, please do not hesitate to call us at 864-520-5011 or you can email us at info@carolinapainscrambler.com

 

 

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Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Recognizing and Treating Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

What is tarsal tunnel syndrome?
Tarsal tunnel syndrome is a condition caused by repeated pressure that results in damage on the posterior tibial nerve. Your tibial nerve branches off of the sciatic nerve and is found near your ankle.
The tibial nerve runs through the tarsal tunnel, which is a narrow passageway inside your ankle that is bound by bone and soft tissue. Damage of the tibial nerve typically occurs when the nerve is compressed as a result of consistent pressure.

What are the symptoms of tarsal tunnel syndrome?
People with tarsal tunnel syndrome may experience pain, numbness, or tingling. This pain can be felt anywhere along the tibial nerve, but it’s also common to feel pain in the sole of the foot or inside the ankle. This can feel like:
sharp, shooting pains
pins and needles
an electric shock
a burning sensation
Symptoms vary greatly depending on each individual. Some people experience symptoms that progress gradually, and some experience symptoms that begin very suddenly.
Pain and other symptoms are often aggravated by physical activity. But if the condition is long-standing, some people even experience pain or tingling at night or when resting.
What causes tarsal tunnel syndrome?
Tarsal tunnel syndrome results from compression of the tibial nerve, and it’s often caused by other conditions.
Causes can include:
severely flat feet, because flattened feet can stretch the tibial nerve
benign bony growths in the tarsal tunnel
varicose veins in the membrane surrounding the tibial nerve, which cause compression on the nerve
inflammation from arthritis
lesions and masses like tumors or lipomas near the tibial nerve
injuries or trauma, like an ankle sprain or fracture — inflammation and swelling from which lead to tarsal tunnel syndrome
diabetes, which makes the nerve more vulnerable to compression

 

How is tarsal tunnel syndrome diagnosed?
If you think you have tarsal tunnel syndrome, you should see your doctor so they can help you identify the cause and create a treatment plan so that the condition doesn’t get worse. Your general practitioner can refer you to an orthopedic surgeon or podiatrist.
At your appointment, your doctor will ask about the progression of your symptoms and about medical history like trauma to the area. They’ll examine your foot and ankle, looking for physical characteristics that could indicate tarsal tunnel syndrome. They’ll likely perform a Tinel’s test, which involves gently tapping the tibial nerve. If you experience a tingling sensation or pain as a result of that pressure, this indicates tarsal tunnel syndrome.
Your doctor may also order additional tests to look for an underlying cause, including an electromyography, which is a test that can detect nerve dysfunction. MRIs may also be ordered if your doctor suspects that a mass or bony growth could be causing the tarsal tunnel syndrome.

Can tarsal tunnel syndrome cause any complications?
If tarsal tunnel syndrome is left untreated, it can result in permanent and irreversible nerve damage. Because this nerve damage affects your foot, it could be painful or difficult to walk or resume normal activities.

How is tarsal tunnel syndrome treated?
Treating tarsal tunnel syndrome depends on your symptoms and the underlying cause of your pain.
At-home treatments
You can take anti-inflammatory medications (including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) to reduce inflammation, which may alleviate compression of the nerve. Resting, icing, compression, and elevation, known as the RICE treatment, may also help reduce swelling and inflammation.
Doctor-prescribed treatments
Steroid injections may also be applied to the affected area to reduce swelling. In some cases, braces and splits may be used to immobilize the foot and limit movement that could compress the nerve. If you have naturally flat feet, you may want to have custom shoes made that support the arches of your feet.
Surgery
In severe, long-term cases, your doctor may recommend a surgery called the tarsal tunnel release. During this procedure, your surgeon will make an incision from behind your ankle down to the arch of your foot. They will release the ligament, relieving the nerve.
A minimally invasive surgery is also used by some surgeons, in which much smaller incisions are made inside your ankle. The surgeon uses tiny instruments to stretch out the ligament. Because there’s less trauma sustained by the tissues, the risk of complications and recovery time are both reduced.

Article Provided By: healthline

Carolina Pain Scrambler Logo, Chronic Pain, Greenville, SCIf you would like to discuss what Carolina Pain Scrambler do to help relieve your chronic pain symptoms or receive more information on our treatment process, please do not hesitate to call us at 864-520-5011 or you can email us at info@carolinapainscrambler.com

 

 

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Hyperalgesia

Hyperalgesia: It Hurts Everywhere!!

Christina Lasich, MD
Health Professional
March 2, 2013

Imagine if a paper cut felt like a red, hot poker stabbed you. Imagine if a small bruise felt like a sledge hammer hit you. If you are able to imagine these examples or maybe have even felt this way, then you know what it is like to have hyperalgesia. This term means that the tissue involved has an increased sensitivity to painful stimuli. The small hurts hurt even worse. The minor injuries feel ten times worse. And it seems to hurt everywhere.

Where does hyperalgesia come from? And why does it happen? Increased sensitivity to pain can occur in damaged or undamaged tissue. Remember, pain does not necessarily mean that something is damaged. But pain does mean that the brain is interpreting signals from the body that seem threatening. Sometimes those signals are amplified because of the superactivation of the pain pathways. And sometimes those signals are amplified because of the suppression natural pain-relieving pathways in the body. Whether you have over-activity of pain pathways or suppression of pain-relieving pathways or both, all these roads can lead to an increased sensitivity to pain.

A classic example of hyperalgesia is felt when someone is experiencing opioid withdrawals. The sudden discontinuation of pain medications leaves a person with a non-functioning natural-pain relieving system while at the same time, the pain pathways deep within the nervous system become extremely active. This perfect storm of hyperalgesia causes a person to feel achy and sensitive everywhere. (1)

 

Another example of an increased sensitivity to pain is getting more and more notoriety because of the overuse of short-acting opioid medications for the treatment of chronic pain. This condition is called opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Pain medication can cause more pain if the user is experiencing a frequent cycle of withdrawals. As already mentioned, opioid withdrawals are well known to cause hyperalgesia. Furthermore, the frequent cycle of withdrawals sensitizes the nervous system. (2)

Nervous system sensitization is probably the most common reason for someone to experience an increased sensitivity to pain. Common conditions like fibromyalgia, headaches and sciatica are all conditions that typically have a component of hyperalgesia associated with that experience. Furthermore, each of those conditions is also related to a nervous system that has been altered in some way to be overactive and wound-up. The nervous system is your alarm system. When your alarm system overreacts to painful stimuli, all the little hurts feel HUGE.

And that might be the reason why you hurt everywhere. Hyperalgesia is not only an increased sensitivity to pain; it is also an indicator that someone’s alarm system might be dysfunctional because of the sudden withdrawal of medications, the overuse of medications or the sensitization of the nervous system. The hyperalgesia process can be reversed. It’s a matter of resetting the alarm. Allowing the body’s natural pain-relieving system to turn back on, eliminating the frequent cycles of withdrawals and desensitizing the nervous system are all ways to treat the increased sensitivity to pain. Unfortunately, resetting your alarm system is easier said than done.

Pain. 2013 Jan 11. pii: S0304-3959(13)00011-0

Cephalalgia. 2013 Jan;33(1):52-64

 

Article Provided By: Healthcentral

Carolina Pain Scrambler Logo, Chronic Pain, Greenville, SCIf you would like to discuss what Carolina Pain Scrambler do to help relieve your chronic pain symptoms or receive more information on our treatment process, please do not hesitate to call us at 864-520-5011 or you can email us at info@carolinapainscrambler.com

 

 

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Failed Back Syndrome

Failed Back and Failed Fusion Syndrome

After any spine surgery, a percentage of patients may still experience pain. This is called failed back or failed fusion syndrome, which is characterized by intractable pain and an inability to return to normal activities. Surgery may be able to fix the condition but not eliminate the pain.
Symptoms
The main symptom is pain following back surgery. Additionally, the patient’s ability to complete activities of daily living may be altered.

Causes and Risk Factors
Smoking
Formation of scar tissue
Recurring or persistent disc disease at adjacent levels
Continued pressure from spinal stenosis
Instability or abnormal movement
Pseudoarthrosis or failure of the fusion
Nerve damage within the nerve, arachnoiditis
Diagnosis
A diagnosis will be based on the patient’s symptoms and medical history.
Additional tests that may be useful include:
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Computed tomography (CT scans)
Treatment
Treatment of these conditions, once they have occurred, will vary depending on the nature of the condition and what caused prior surgery to fail.
Some patients fail to improve even after the best surgical intervention. In spite of careful diagnosis and a successful operation, patients may continue to experience pain or limitations in performing daily activities. This continuation of symptoms is known as “failed back syndrome.” A spinal fusion occurs after the surgeon creates the conditions for the bones of the spine to unite into an immobile block. The union of the fusion mass occurs over time. When the time for healing is extended or the fusion fails to unite, this is a called a “failed fusion” or pseudoarthrosis.

Article Provided By: cedars-sinai.org

Carolina Pain Scrambler Logo, Chronic Pain, Greenville, SCIf you would like to discuss what Carolina Pain Scrambler do to help relieve your chronic pain symptoms or receive more information on our treatment process, please do not hesitate to call us at 864-520-5011 or you can email us at info@carolinapainscrambler.com

 

 

 

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Postherpetic Neuralgia

Postherpetic Neuralgia

What Is Postherpetic Neuralgia?
Postherpetic neuralgia is a painful condition that affects your nerves and skin. It is a complication of herpes zoster, commonly called shingles.
Shingles is a painful, blistering skin rash caused by a reactivation of a virus called varicella-zoster, which people usually get in childhood or adolescence as chicken pox. The virus can remain dormant in your body’s nerve cells after childhood and can reactivate years later.
When the pain caused by shingles doesn’t go away after the rash and blisters clear up, the condition is called postherpetic neuralgia. Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication of shingles, and it occurs when a person’s nerves are damaged during a shingles outbreak. The damaged nerves can’t send messages from the skin to the brain and the messages become confused, resulting in chronic, severe pain that can last for months or years.
According to a study by the American Academy of Family Physicians, about 20 percent of people who get shingles also develop postherpetic neuralgia. Additionally, this condition is more likely to occur in people over the age of 60.
What Are the Symptoms of Postherpetic Neuralgia?
Shingles typically causes a painful, blistering rash. Postherpetic neuralgia is a complication that only occurs in people who already have had shingles. Common signs and symptoms of postherpetic neuralgia include:
severe pain that continues for more than one to three months in the same place that the shingles occurred, even after the rash goes away
burning sensation on the skin, even from the slightest pressure
sensitivity to touch or temperature changes

What Are the Risk Factors for Postherpetic Neuralgia?
Age is a high risk factor for getting both shingles and postherpetic neuralgia. People over 60 have an increased risk, and people over 70 have an even higher risk.
Those who have acute pain and severe rash during shingles are also at a higher risk of developing postherpetic neuralgia.
People with lowered immunity due to disorders like HIV infection and Hodgkin’s lymphoma, a type of cancer, have an increased risk of developing shingles. A study by the American Academy of Family Physicians shows that the incidence of shingles is up to 15 times greater in patients with HIV than in those who don’t have the virus.

 

How Is Postherpetic Neuralgia Diagnosed and Treated?
Tests are unnecessary. Most of the time, your doctor will diagnose postherpetic neuralgia based on the duration of pain symptoms following shingles.
Treatment for postherpetic neuralgia aims to control and reduce pain until the condition goes away. Pain therapy may include the following treatments.
Analgesics
Painkillers are also known as analgesics. Common analgesics used for postherpetic neuralgia include:
capsaicin cream: an analgesic extracted from hot chili peppers
lidocaine patches, a numbing medicine
over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), or ibuprofen (Advil)
stronger prescription drugs, such as codeine, hydrocodone, or oxycodone
Tricyclic Antidepressants
Tricyclic antidepressants are normally prescribed to treat depression, but they are also effective in treating pain caused by postherpetic neuralgia. They often have side effects, like dry mouth and blurred vision. They do not act as quickly as other types of painkillers. Commonly used tricyclic antidepressants to treat postherpetic neuralgia include:
amitriptyline (Elavil)
desipramine (Norpramin)
imipramine (Tofranil)
nortriptyline (Pamelor)
Anticonvulsants
Anticonvulsants are normally used for seizures, however clinical studies have shown that lower doses can be effective in treating pain for postherpetic neuralgia as well. Commonly used anticonvulsants include
carbamazepine (Tegretol)
pregabalin (Lyrica)
gabapentin (Neurontin)
phenytoin (Dilantin)

How Can Postherpetic Neuralgia Be Prevented?
A herpes zoster vaccine called Zostavax reduces the risk of shingles by 50 percent, and also protects against postherpetic neuralgia. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Trusted Source
recommends that the vaccine be given to all adults over the age of 60, except for people with a weakened immune system. These people may be advised not to receive the vaccine because it contains a live virus.
The herpes zoster vaccine, Zostavax, is different from the chicken pox vaccine, Varivax, that is usually given to children. Zostavax has at least 14 times more live varicella viruses than Varivax. Zostavax can’t be used in children, and Varivax can’t be used to prevent herpes zoster.

Outlook
Painful, postherpetic neuralgia is treatable and preventable. Most cases disappear in one to two months, and rare cases last longer than a year.
If you’re over the age of 60, it’s wise to get vaccinated against it. If you do develop it, there are many analgesics and even antidepressants you can take to manage the pain. It may just take some time and patience.

Article Provided By: healthline

Carolina Pain Scrambler Logo, Chronic Pain, Greenville, SCIf you would like to discuss what Carolina Pain Scrambler do to help relieve your chronic pain symptoms or receive more information on our treatment process, please do not hesitate to call us at 864-520-5011  or you can email us at info@carolinapainscrambler.com

 

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Diabetic Neuropathy, Pain Relief, Peripheral Neuropathy, Pain Management, Nerve Pain Treatment, Carolina Pain Scrambler, Greenville South Carolina

Idiopathic Neuropathy

Idiopathic Neuropathy

What is idiopathic neuropathy?
Neuropathy is when nerve damage interferes with the functioning of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). When the cause can’t be determined, it’s called idiopathic neuropathy.
The PNS carries information from the central nervous system (CNS), or brain and spinal cord, to the rest of the body.
There are three kinds of nerves within the PNS. Sensory nerves relay messages from the senses to the brain. This allows sensations of temperature and touch. Motor nerves transmit signals from the brain to the muscles. This helps the brain control the muscles. Autonomic nerves control body functions like heart rate, breathing, and digestion.
Damage to nerve cells can affect how the PNS communicates with the rest of the body. Symptoms can include numbness, pain, and balance issues.
It’s called acute neuropathy when symptoms develop suddenly. Alternately, it’s called chronic neuropathy when symptoms start slowly and increase over time.
Diagnosis involves physical examination and review of medical history. Diagnostic testing may include blood tests, nerve testing, and imaging tests.
There is no cure for idiopathic neuropathy. Treatments including medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications can help you function and feel better.
What are the symptoms of neuropathy?
Symptoms can be vague at onset and are similar to those of other conditions. Symptoms vary depending on which nerves are damaged.
Symptoms of sensory neuropathy may include:
numbness, tingling, and burning sensation, particularly in hands and feet
vague or strange sensations (paresthesias)
pain, or inability to feel pain, touch, or temperature
lack of coordination or loss of reflexes
Symptoms of motor neuropathy may include:
muscle weakness or loss of muscle control
trouble with balance and coordination
muscle twitching, cramping, or spasms
difficulty walking or moving limbs
Symptoms of autonomic neuropathy may include:
dizziness, or fainting
sweating abnormalities
nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea
abnormal heart rate or blood pressure
sexual dysfunction
Symptoms may progress quickly and then slowly get better over time in some forms of acute neuropathy. Some chronic neuropathies cause periods of relapse followed by periods of remission.
What are the causes of neuropathy?
Some conditions that cause neuropathy are hereditary. Other things that can cause it include:
injury or infection
nutritional or hormonal imbalances
chemotherapy or exposure to toxic substances
autoimmune diseases such as Lyme disease, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
systemic diseases like diabetes, kidney disorders, and certain cancers
vascular disorders
tumors
Approximately 30 percent of neuropathy cases are due to diabetes, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Between 30 and 40 percent of the remaining cases are idiopathic.

Who is at risk for neuropathy?
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke estimates that approximately 20 million Americans have peripheral neuropathy. Anyone can develop neuropathy, but risk increases with age.

How is neuropathy diagnosed?
There is no one definitive test for neuropathy. Testing begins with a physical examination and a complete medical history. Tell your doctor about any symptoms you’re experiencing. Be sure to let them know about over-the-counter and prescription medications you’re taking. It’s also important to mention if you’ve been exposed to toxins on the job or at home.
Diagnostic testing may include:
blood work
urinalysis
nerve conduction studies (NCS)
electromyography (EMG)
skin, nerve, and muscle biopsies
Imaging tests may include a CT scan, X-rays, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

How is neuropathy treated?
Peripheral neuropathy can cause permanent damage to nerves if untreated. Treatment will target the cause if it can be determined.
Treatment of idiopathic neuropathy revolves around symptom management. Options include over-the-counter and prescription medications, physical therapy, and occupational therapy.
Mobility aids can help you move around safely if you’re having trouble with balance or walking. These may include special shoes, braces, and canes.
Lifestyle choices can help to improve day-to-day functioning. It’s important to maintain a healthy weight through a balanced diet rich in vitamins and nutrients. It’s also important to get plenty of rest and exercise to tone and strengthen your muscles. Quitting smoking and keeping alcohol consumption to a minimum is healthy and may also help with your neuropathy.
Living with a chronic illness can lead to anxiety and stress. It can be helpful to talk with someone who lives with the same condition. Your doctor can refer you to a local neuropathy support group for additional support.

What is the long-term outlook for neuropathy?
The general prognosis for idiopathic neuropathy is good, even if your symptoms are permanent. There are many effective treatments available for keeping your symptoms in check and helping you lead a comfortable, happy life. Working with your doctor to treat any underlying condition you may have, along with your symptoms, is the ticket to your best outcome in the short and long term.

Article Provided By: Healthline
Carolina Pain Scrambler Logo, Chronic Pain, Greenville, SCIf you would like to discuss what Carolina Pain Scrambler do to help relieve your chronic pain symptoms or receive more information on our treatment process, please do not hesitate to call us at 864-520-5011 or you can email us at info@carolinapainscrambler.com

 

 

 

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Knee Nerve Damage

What are the Symptoms of Knee Nerve Damage?

 

Patti Kate
Last Modified Date: July 03, 2020
There can be a number of different symptoms of knee nerve damage, but the most common include pain, numbness and tingling, and feelings of burning on or around the kneecap. Some people may also find that they have a hard time moving the joint, or they may feel stiffness or a dull ache when the leg bends in certain ways. Discoloration around the site of the damage is common, too, particularly if the nerve damage was caused by some sort of trauma. A number of different nerves run through the knees, but diagnosing damage can be somewhat tricky. Symptoms are often really similar to other joint problems, including cartilage damage and issues related to arthritis. In general, medical professionals recommend that anyone who suspects they may be suffering from knee nerve damage get evaluated and treated.

Numbness associated with knee nerve damage may radiate to the upper leg.
Nerve Damage Basics

The body’s nervous system is a complex series of chemical signals that course along the nerve pathways bringing messages about sensation and pain to and from the brain. Damage can happen almost anywhere, and is usually a result of injury or trauma. Nerves can get pinched, severed, or twisted, and moving joints like the knee provide many different opportunities for this sort of injury. Local nerves can be pinched or squeezed fairly easily between the bones and ligaments that together form the joint.

The pain associated with knee nerve damage may be alleviated with physical therapy.
Some damage is obvious right from the start. This isn’t always true, though, since the damage may not be immediate. Certain knee injuries build on themselves over time. A person may feel as though he or she has healed, but may not realize till later that that healing has actually compromised the nerve structure, for instance; or, a person may not even realize that there’s been an injury at all till certain signs of nerve damage begin appearing.

Knee nerve damage can make standing from a seated position painful or difficult.
Pain
Pain that seems to radiate out of the knee is one of the most common symptoms of localized nerve damage. This often comes in varying degrees, and can alternate between throbbing and mild, dull aching. Sometimes moving the leg or changing the knee’s position can alleviate pressure, but not always. A lot has to do with whether the nerve damage is accompanied by inflammation or swelling at the site, and how seriously the nerves were impacted.

Knee pain may be a sign of nerve damage.
Nerves are usually responsible for carrying signals to indicate pain, and when they’re damaged they can respond in exaggerated ways — in some cases transmitting signals of pain that are disproportionate with the extent of the actual injury. Pathways that have actually been severed, on the other hand, sometimes fail to transmit any signals of pain, even if it would otherwise be warranted.
Numbness and Burning
Anther major sign of knee nerve damage is numbness or a lack of sensitivity. Numbness may be localized in the knee, or it might radiate to the upper or lower leg. Some people also describe the discomfort as a prickly “pins and needles” sensation. Tingling tends to come and go, but is usually most common after periods of inactivity.
People who have suffered these sorts of injuries sometimes also describe a feeling of burning just below the skin. Some of this is just perception, but in certain cases there are actual local skin temperature fluctuations that go hand-in-hand with these sensations. The patient’s knee may feel warm to the touch, or in some cases colder than usual.
Restricted Movement
In many cases nerve damage can also restrict a person’s movement. Quick kicks, sharp bends, and other extreme or rapid movements may be delayed or too painful to perform. This is usually a result of muscle constrictions that happen in response to nerve signals indicating damage — which is to say, it isn’t caused directly by the nerves, but it is nonetheless closely related.
Patients with nerve damage to the knee may also experience weakness and immobility. This weakness may involve the knee or the entire leg. In some instances, the leg may buckle under and the patient may feel unsteady or lose his or her balance
Skin Discoloration
It’s also possible for the skin along the top or backside of the knee to become discolored. A bluish tinge surrounding the knee may indicate nerve damage, although the condition does not always cause this. Color changes are most common when the damage has been caused by a trauma that has otherwise left bruising on the skin, and in these cases it can be tough to distinguish between specific causes.
Diagnosis and Treatment Options
Injury to the soft tissue of the knee does not necessarily mean nerve damage has occurred. Ligaments or tendons may have been torn, yet surrounding nerves may be left undamaged. Although a physician or other healthcare expert may recommend a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) test to determine if there are tears of tendons or ligaments, nerve damage will not always show up on this imaging, and as such still more testing may be required. In most cases these sorts of extreme measures are only taken if there’s no other way to treat a patient’s symptoms.
Care providers often recommend diagnostic tests if symptoms of peripheral neuropathy are present, which are basically more systemic nervous system problems. A test known as an electromyography (EMG) can determine if symptoms are related to knee nerve damage. From there, medical teams can come up with treatment plans. Sometimes physical therapy and rehabilitation can bring a person back to normal, but in other cases more invasive therapies like surgery are necessary. It’s not always possible to reverse nerve damage, and a lot of times the best that can be done is to mitigate the problem and stop it from spreading or getting worse.

Article Provided By: Wisegeek

Carolina Pain Scrambler Logo, Chronic Pain, Greenville, SCIf you would like to discuss what Carolina Pain Scrambler do to help relieve your chronic pain symptoms or receive more information on our treatment process, please do not hesitate to call us at 864-520-5011 or you can email us at info@carolinapainscrambler.com

 

 

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